Collapsed foot arch with the toes pointing out

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)   What is Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD)? Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) occurs when the tibialis posterior muscle is not functioning properly. This muscle originates on the inside of the lower leg (tibia), travels…
The left hip is lower than the right which causes a leg length discrepancy.

Leg Length Discrepancy

Leg Length Discrepancy What is it? A leg length discrepancy is when one leg is shorter than the other. This can be a structural or a functional difference, which are both treated differently. A structural difference occurs when one leg…
Foot pronation leading to internal rotation of the leg, which is pointing the knee inwards.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) What is Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome? Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is pain at the patellofemoral joint. This joint is the contact point between the knee cap (patella) and the upper leg bone (femur). The knee cap (patella)…

Calcaneal Fat Pad Contusion/Fat Pad Syndrome

Calcaneal Fat Pad Contusion/Fat Pad Syndrome   What is it? Calcaneal fat pad contusion, or fat pad syndrome, occurs when the fat pad under the heel becomes irritated. There is a fat pad that sits under the heel to protect…
View from the bottom of the foot

Diabetes and the Feet

Diabetes and the Feet Diabetic complications can lead to problems in the feet. These problems can become serious if not taken care of. Those with diabetes should be monitoring their feet to prevent these problems from worsening. What is Diabetes?…
Bones in the knee joint with the meniscus indicated in red.

Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee Osteoarthritis What is it? Knee osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage in the knee wears down causing friction at the knee joint. This cartilage may wear down until the bones are rubbing together without the protection of the cartilage. Knee…
Pain location of shin spints: the the lower two thirds of the lower leg.

Shin Splints (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)

Shin Splints (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome) What is it? Shin splints, or Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is characterized by pain in on the inside of the lower leg, specifically in the lower two thirds (see figure 1). Overuse and…
Left foot with a moderately low arch

Pes Planus (Flat Feet)

Pes Planus (Flat Feet) What is it? Pes planus or flat feet is when the arch on the inside of the foot is lower than what would be considered normal. This may be worse on one foot compared to the…
Top of feet with toes spread apart

Calluses and Corns

Calluses and Corns What are Calluses and Corns? Calluses and corns are thickened areas of the skin. This thickened skin is a response to an area of higher pressure or shear. To protect the skin, the body responds by thickening…
Viewing the top of the foot with a bunion and hallux valgus deformities

Bunion and Hallux Valgus

Bunion and Hallux Valgus What are Bunions? Bunions are a bony deformity on the side of the big toe joint (1st MTP joint). It can be accompanied with or without the deviation of the toe (hallux valgus). When the bunion…